SARÒ BANALE: LA VITA È OGGI NEGLI OCCHI DI UNA GIOVANE ETIOPE 

Una miriade di colori, profumi, emozioni mi sorprende appena arrivata ad Addis Abeba. L’immagine di una mamma che prende a calci la figlia del marito, già maggiorenne e in lacrime, nel silenzio del padre e senza che nessuno quasi se ne accorga, mi colpisce il cuore all’uscita dell’aeroporto. La città è in piena ricostruzione (o forse è meglio usare il termine “costruzione”). Le aziende cinesi dominano il mercato e lentamente si vedono levarsi verso il cielo grattacieli orribili, in mezzo alle baracche. Baracche piccole, medie, sporche, bianche, celesti, con le parabole sui tetti, sul greto del fiume, tra i sassi, tra i pali della corrente lasciati per terra, tra le pozzanghere, tra i tanti negozi di carabattole varie, tra i poliziotti armati che non vogliono essere fotografati; baracche nella miseria più nera. E nient’altro più. [Galleria all’interno]

Un bambino, vestito di blu, sui 7 anni, si arrampica alla porta della sua baracca – casa. Sorride curioso agli stranieri bianchi che lo guardano impietriti. Dinanzi a lui entrano in auto nell’ambasciata italiana, Villa Italia, di stile mussoliniano, lussuosa e con un parco vastissimo, blindata da un’alta recinzione, diversi funzionari e diplomatici. Nemmeno si accorgono che dall’altra parte della strada finisce l’Uomo. 

Sarò banale, ma mi chiedo se ad Addis Abeba arrivino veramente tutti i soldi delle tante ong. Non lo so, non possiedo i dati precisi, quelli veri, ma non vorrei che, anche questa volta, gli stranieri – tra i quali gli italiani, che arrivano qui a costruire le dighe con prestiti da capogiro a un paese HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Country) – pensassero che la vita è ancora solo profitto.

L’Italia è il principale contribuente del Fondo fiduciario dell’Ue per l’emergenza in Africa. Più che aiuti e rimesse, tuttavia, il grosso dei flussi finanziari viene dal commercio e dagli investimenti diretti. L’Italia è infatti il quinto Paese esportatore dell’Etiopia, con una forte concentrazione nel comparto della meccanica strumentale (circa 100 milioni di euro l’anno in macchine industriali). La Cina, più di altri Paesi, sta investendo, invece, con fondi garantiti, in grandi opere infrastrutturali, ridefinendo così le proprie priorità strategiche: se inizialmente Pechino era interessata soprattutto a materie prime e a risorse naturali, negli ultimi anni è cresciuto l’interesse a delocalizzare attività manifatturiere ad alta intensità di lavoro in un Paese che, come l’Etiopia, diventa anche l’accesso ai mercati africani e permette, attraverso le Zone Economiche Speciali, di aggredire il mercato statunitense con prodotti esenti da tariffe. Nonostante ciò, secondo il personale dell’ambasciata americana ad Addis Abeba, gli Stati Uniti rimangono impegnati in Etiopia “più che mai”, per una moltitudine di ragioni, in primis geopolitiche. Non a caso l’Etiopia, che mira lo sguardo verso Gibuti, sullo strategico Golfo di Aden, è il Paese che al mondo maggiormente contribuisce alle missioni di pace delle Nazioni Unite. Esiste una Amhara Association of America, con sede a Washington, il cui presidente, Tewodrose Tirfe, ha dichiarato recentemente che “la comunità etiope-americana sta finalmente comprendendo come funziona il processo democratico americano, e crede di poter fare la differenza in Etiopia, a partire dallo Stato di Amhara”.

La potenza del messaggio è nota e può aprire strade lastricate di dollari. E non si vedono antagonisti in grado di mutare le cose, anche se la vita oggi è nei dolci occhi di una giovane etiope, bellissima e fiera. Come la Madre Terra, che forse un giorno non perdonerà più.

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